Department of Neonatology and Medical Genetics
The Department of Neonatology of Belarusian Institute for Advanced Medical Training was founded in January, 1981, due to the need of a specialized training and retraining for pediatricians, who render medical care to newborns. The department was based at the Scientific and Research Institute for Protection of Motherhood and Childhood and at Minsk City Clinical Hospital № 7.
The first lecturers of the department were researchers from the Scientific and Research Institute for Protection of Motherhood and Childhood, who had a pedagogical experience. The first head of the department was A.K.Ustinovich, an associate professor, director of the Scientific and Research Institute for Protection of Motherhood and Childhood. The staff of the department was represented by the following specialists: G.A.Shishko, S.I.Denisevich, V.M.Pivchenko, L.F.Krylova. The department together with Scientific and Research Institute and its clinical base contributed greatly into the transformation of the Scientific and Research Institute for Protection of Motherhood and Childhood into a large republican scientific and practical perinatologic center. There have been created additional possibilities for professional development of scientific staff and physicians of the clinical base; scientific and research work of Scientific and Research Institute and the work of the department has become more effective. It became possible to undergo training in neonatology at clinical residency.
The course on medical genetics and prenatal diagnostics has been organized at the Department of Neonatology of BelMAPE since February, 2000, aiming at the training of physicians of medicogenetic services and physicians of different specialties: modern methods of clinical and laboratory diagnostics, methods of treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of genetic and congenital diseases. In 2000-2003, head of the course was an academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, G.I. Laziuk (main geneticist of the Ministry of Health at that time).
At present, the training courses on medical genetics are carried out at the Department of Neonatology and Medical Genetics. Advanced training programs of medical genetics include the main issues: clinical genetics – hereditary diseases, congenital malformations, multiple congenital abnormality syndromes, chromosomal pathology, metabolic diseases, fetopathies etc.; special genetic methods of laboratory diagnostics of hereditary diseases at pre- and postnatal levels: cytogenetics, FISH and DNA diagnostics, biochemical methods; prenatal diagnostics of malformations and chromosome diseases of fetus – ultrasound and biochemical screening of pregnant women at the 1st and 2 trimesters, methods of invasive diagnostics (amniocentesis; biopsy of chorionic villae); medical and genetic consultations of pregnant women; prenatal diagnostics of congenital heart malformations.
The training is held at divisions of the Republican Scientific and Practical Center «Mother and Child», leading institution of the Republic of Belarus in the field of medical genetics. The training is carried out at outpatient and polyclinic divisions, laboratories (biochemical genetics, clinical cytogenetics, molecular diagnostics), clinical divisions, ultrasound rooms and rooms of invasive prenatal diagnostics. Specialists of the department constantly cooperate with the leading geneticists of European universities: issues of ultrasound diagnostics of cardiovascular system congenital abnormalities; morphological diagnostics of congenital malformations of fetus – control over justification for surgical termination of pregnancy regarding medical evidence.
Specialists of the department develop the ways how to solve the problems, which are actual for healthcare of Belarus, and which are devoted to clinical-metabolic and endocrinology aspects of adaptation abnormalities and their correction in premature inborns at hypoxic states at early neonatal period; optimization of intensive therapy methods from a position of risk reduction of early pediatric invalidization, multidisciplinary approach to the problems of newborns from a position of search oxidative stress interrelation, systemic inflammation and clinical peculiarities of neonatal period. Results of scientific researches are reflected in scientific publications, instructions of the Ministry of Health. During the time of the department’s existence, specialists of the department have published more than 250 scientific works at reviewed scientific medical magazines of Belarus, CIS countries and non-CIS countries, more than 50 methodological recommendations and guidance manuals have been prepared. The department has prepared and successfully protected 14 Candidate’s and one Doctoral theses.
Clinical bases of the department are Republican Scientific and Practical Center “Mother and Child” and Healthcare Establishment “Clinical Maternity Hospital of Minsk Region”. To provide continuing postgraduate advanced training for physicians, the Department of Neonatology and Medical Genetics holds advanced training courses; prepares specialists at clinical residency on the specialties «Neonatology» and «Medical Genetics». Multimedia technologies and topic discussions are widely used during the training. Practical classes include clinical rounds, analysis of patients’ histories, analysis of morbidity and assistance to physicians while implementing new methods and technologies of diagnostics and treatment.
With the direct involvement of the specialists, in 2003, there were developed and approved «Industry standards of examination and treatment of children with the pathology of neonatal period at stationary conditions» (Order of the Ministry of Health of Belarus from the 30th of September, 2003, № 156), in 2011 «Clinical protocols of diagnostics, resuscitation and intensive therapy in neonatology» (Order of the Ministry of Health of Belarus from the 28th of January, 2011, № 81), - main documents under which neonatology services of the country interact with each other.
Specialists of the department are successfully carrying out both academic and scientific work, constantly go to other regions of Belarus by orders of the Ministry of Health and other governing boards to render medical care and consult the most complicated patients through the Republican Center of Emergency Medical Care. Also specialists of the department participate at regional and republican seminars with clinical rounds, analysis of patients’ histories, analysis of morbidity, practical assistance in the implementation of new diagnostic and treatment methods.
The department is actively carrying out scientific work on the problems which are actual for healthcare of the Republic of Belarus: issues connected with clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic aspects of adaptation disturbances and their correction in premature infants at hypoxic states at early neonatal period; issues of early neonatal mortality and measures of its reduction in Belarus; adaptation of newborns being born from multiple pregnancy; influence of perinatal factors on early invalidization of low birth-weight babies and its prevention.
To provide continuing postgraduate advanced training of physicians the Department of Neonatology and Medical Genetics carries out three-step system of advanced training which includes the following: topical courses at the department; provision with advanced training guest-courses; invitation of physicians to clinical bases of the department to master some perinatal technologies and work on separate key issues. The department holds visiting classes with clinical rounds, analysis of patients’ histories, analysis of morbidity, practical assistance in implementation of new diagnostic and treatment methods.