The Department of Surgery of Belarusian State Institute for Advanced Medical Training was the very first one in the system of advanced medical training. Its foundation preceded the official opening of the Institute in 1931. Course improvement of surgeons was carried out at the Faculty of Belarusian State University and Medical Institute. Therefore, heads of the clinics of the medical institute were the forerunners of heads of the Department of Surgery (M. P. Sokolovsky, S. M. Rubashov, E. V. Korchits, etc.).
After the official opening of Belarusian State Institute for Advanced Medical Training, the first head of the department was S. M. Rubashov (1883-1957), who headed the department for only 2 years. His trainees and collaborators were V.V. Babuk, I.M. Stelmashonok.
E.V. Korchits (1880-1950), the second head of the department (1934-1941), a native of Tashkent, was the first and only corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, a famous surgeon, the founder of oncology and anti-goiter services. His assistants at that time were A.A. Greiman, N.I. Bobrik.
During the Great Patriotic War, advanced training of surgeons was carried out at Minsk Medical Institute, which was relocated to the city of Yaroslavl.
In 1949, the Department of Surgery of Belarusian State Institute for Advanced Medical Training was headed by P.N. Maslov, who after a few months later went to work at the Minsk Medical Institute.
From 1949 to 1953, the department was headed by Professor V.O. Morzon. He was an original Belarusian surgeon who has gone his way from an ordinary rural surgeon to a professor. Being at the same time the Rector of Belarusian State Institute for Advanced Medical Training, he significantly improved the conditions for surgery lectures in rather difficult conditions at the railway hospital. After the death of V. O. Morzon, the department was relocated to a newly built building of Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital on the Street Podlesnaya.
From 1954 to 1963, the department was headed by A. M. Boldin. The main activities of the clinic remained abdominal surgery; the directions of thoracic surgery and anesthesiology had been appeared. At that time, experienced physicians worked at the department: Associate Professor 3.E. Livshits, O.S. Misharev, V.I. Shimanskaya, A.A. Plavinsky, N.A. Tishchenko.
From 1963 to 1965, Associate Professor 3.E. Livshits acted as head of the department. After his retirement, N.P. Batyan was employed as an assistant at the department.
From 1965 to 1975, the department was headed by the Honored Scientist, Professor I.B. Oleshkevich. At this time, O.S. Misharev defended his doctoral thesis and continued his work at the Department of Thoracic Surgery (later - Pediatric Surgery). N.A.Tishchenko started to work at the Department of Oncology. The department was enriched by 2 associate professors I.3. Klyavzunik and M.N. Khomchenko. Due to the fact, that lectures in anesthesiology had been started, the department was renamed into the Department of Surgery and Anesthesiology. In this status, it existed until 1968, when the newly opened Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation was headed by a Doctor of Medical Sciences, and then by Professor I.3.Klavzunik. Thus, there had been created three new departments – Department of Oncology; Department of Chest Surgery and then Pediatric Surgery; Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation.
Since 1971, Department of Surgery has been situated at the newly opened Republican and then Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital. From 1975 to 1977, the Department of Surgery was headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences V.G. Astapenko, who paid a special attention to the emergency surgery. From 1977 to 2002, the department was headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the BSSR, Laureate of the State Prize of the Republic of Belarus, Academician of the BelAMS and Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine I.N. Grishin, who continued the best traditions of the department. At that time, the title of the department had been changed - it became the Department of Clinical and Experimental Surgery, which more fully reflected the essence of the work, since specialized republican centers situated there: centers of vascular surgery, microsurgery, proctology, abdominal and purulent surgery, endoscopic diagnostic methods and surgical treatment. The department was expanded due to the organization of the courses in cardiovascular surgery (head - Doctor of Medical Sciences, Laureate of the State Prize of the Republic of Belarus Y.P. Ostrovsky) and topographic anatomy (Professor A.F. Rylyuk). By 2000, 6 doctors of medical sciences, 3 Laureates of the State Prize, 5 associate professors, 2 professors worked at the department.
More than 6 thousand surgical interventions are performed annually not only on the abdominal organs, but also on the endocrine system. More than 1,520 limb replantations have been performed at the clinic, arterial transposition operations have been developed and implemented for the first time in the world, and a program has been developed to improve the results of diabetic foot treatment. From 1993 to 1997, in Belarus, a network of Republican (2) and regional (5) rehabilitation rooms for stoma care has been created, in which, in 2005, more than 5,000 disabled people with entero- and colostomies were registered. Doctors of Science Y.P. Ostrovsky, V.P. Skornyakov, N.N. Chur, V.N. Podgaisky, A.F. Rylyuk; associate professors I.A. Davidovsky, V.P. Kuzurov, V.N. Stasevich; assistants A.V. Sparrow, S.V. Alexandrov, M.G. Ivashko worked at the department at that time.
Since 2002, the department had been headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor A.V. Vorobei. In 2001, Doctor of Medical Sciences V.V. Klimovich, in 2003 a surgeon of the highest category E.I. Vizhinis were employed by the department. In connection with the reorganization of the work of BelMAPE in 2003, the department was renamed into Department of Surgery and Topographic Anatomy, and since March 2006 - Department of Surgery. In 2005, Doctor of Medical Sciences V.N. Podgaisky was employed by the department to work part-time. In February 2006, Doctor of Medical Sciences N.N. Chur completely moved to the position of Professor of the department. Thus, by the 75th Anniversary of BelMAPE, 8 doctors of medical sciences worked at the main base of the department (Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital), and within the courses of topographic anatomy (Central Scientific and Research Laboratory of BelMAPE) and cardiovascular surgery (Republican Scientific and Practical Center "Cardiology"), among which there were 6 professors (I.N. Grishin, A.V. Vorobey, A.F. Rylyuk, Yu.P. Ostrovsky, N.N. Chur, V.N. Podgaysky); associate professors - V.V. Klimovich, I.A. Davidovsky, G.P. Kuzurov; assistants - E.I. Vizhinis, M.G. Ivashko; laboratory assistants: R.A. Misovets, G.S. Grinkevich, A.G. Lapchinskaya.
Since the middle of 2006, employees who have defended or are preparing candidate dissertations at the Department of Surgery have been alternately accepted and are working at the department: (2006), Lurie V.N. (2008), Shuleiko A.Ch. (2010), assistants: Orlovsky Yu.N. (2011), Popel G.A. (2012), Makhmudov A.M. (2012). In 2010, Associate Professor G.P. Kuzurov retired due to disability. In 2010, Professor Podgaisky V.N. started to work part-time at the Department of Emergency Surgery of the BelMAPE, and since 2014 he headed the newly created Department of Plastic Surgery and Combustiology. Associate Professor Klimovich V.V. (2009) and Professor Chur N.N. started another job. Since 2007, Professor Ostrovsky Y.P. headed the newly created Department of Cardiac Surgery with a Course of Transplantology. Since 2010, Professor Kokhnyuk V.T., Deputy Director of the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Oncology and Medical Radiology named after N.N.Aleksandrov, has been working part-time at the Department of Surgery.
Working as head of the department A.V.Vorobei continued to strengthen the authority and develop the traditions of the department. Since 2002, specialists of the department has published 19 monographs and practical guides on various sections of surgery, received 29 patents for inventions, under the guidance of the staff of the department 18 Candidate’s thesis have been defended, there have been created two monographs “Colorectal Surgery” and “Surgical Gastroenterology”.
A wide clinical introduction in surgery of the biliary system, spleen, thyroid gland, phlebology and angiology of the national universal medical laser "MUL-1" had begun, the development and experimental tests of which had been successfully completed earlier under the guidance of Professor I.N. Grishin. Over the last years, the department have trained 26 full-time clinical residents and 56 full-time and contract residents. 12 of them work today at Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital and clinics in Minsk. More than half of the emergency visits of the regional medical aviation for surgery annually are performed by the staff of the department.
A modification of Sugiura operations for bleeding from esophageal varices has been introduced, new approaches have been proposed, and more than 25 esophagocoloplasties have been successfully performed for post-burn cicatricial strictures of the esophagus. Pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic colostasis in dolichocolon and left-sided tumor colonic obstruction, abdominalgia in chronic pancreatitis, Hirschsprung's disease in adults have been developed. Since 2009, more than 250 operations have been performed for the latter. New X-ray methods for examining surgical patients (colonic obstruction, stoma patients, dolichocolon, intestinal transit) have been proposed. The issues of angioembolization in the celiac trunk system, surgery of the carotid and vertebral arteries, laser phlebocoagulation are being studied; surgery of the lower thoracic and abdominal sections of the esophagus, perforated ulcers, treatment of neck phlegmon and mediastinitis, the principles of rapid recovery surgery have been introduced. Arrosive-hemorrhagic complications of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, polyposis syndromes, Barrett's esophagus, subcutaneous hernia are being studied.
By the end of 2017, 18 PhD theses were defended under the guidance of Professor A.V. Vorobei in the following fields: in the field of coloproctology (8), emergency surgery (3), thoracic surgery (1), biliary surgery (1), surgical hematology (1), endoscopy ( 2), colorectal cancer (1), vascular malformations (1). In 2011, Professor A.V. Vorobei organized and headed the Belarusian Pancreatic Club, which was included in 2013 as a national association in the European Pancreatic Club. On November 14, 2014, Professor A.V. Vorobei was elected as a corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. In 2014, the assistant of the department, Y.N. Orlovsky, received the Award the National Academy of Sciences named after academician V.F. Kuprevich in the nomination “Young Scientist”.
The course of topographic anatomy and operative surgery was founded in 1947. The first head of the course was Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor Z.Sh. Bergman, a member of the Finnish military company and the Great Patriotic War, holder of the Order of the Red Star.
In 1969, under the guidance of Ph.D. Associate Professor S.V. Leonov, the course was transformed into the Department of Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery. S.V. Leonov is the author of more than 40 scientific papers on the blood supply of the abdominal cavity and the central nervous system, and he was awarded the honorary sign “Excellence in Public Health”.
From 1978 to 1988, the department was headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor L.E. Kotovich, author of 2 monographs and more than 120 scientific papers on pediatric surgery.
After the election of Professor L.E. Kotovich as the head of the Department of Pediatric Surgery, in 1988 the Department of Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery was headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor K.N. Tarun, author of more than 60 papers on gastrointestinal surgery. The final stage of his activity was the transformation of the department into a course at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (headed by Professor I.N. Grishin) in 1987.
From 1987 to 2014, the course headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor A.F. Rylyuk, who was the author of 3 monographs, 4 inventions, 80 rationalization proposals, and more than 200 publications in the field of operative gynecology and surgery. His innovative ideas are widely used in many CIS countries.
Associate Professor A.K. Kholodny, senior lecturer N.N. Makovsky and laboratory assistant G.S. Grinevich were lecturers at the course of Topographic Tomography and Operative Surgery.
The course is located in the village Lesnoy, at the Central Scientific Research Laboratory of BelMAPE. The course has an anatomical museum, a magnificent collection of visual aids. Trainees, clinical residents, PhD students gain practical knowledge in the operating room of the Central Scientific Research Laboratory and in the mortuary of Minsk Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Examination.
The course team provides educational and methodological assistance to 16 departments and courses of BelMAPE. Since March 2006, the course of topographic anatomy has become part of a new department: Department of Pathological and Topographic Anatomy under the guidance of Associate Professor Y.I. Rogov. N.N. Makovsky changed his place of work. In 2014, A.K. Kholodny and laboratory assistant G.S. Grinevich retired. The course of topographic anatomy was supplemented by new lecturers: assistant P.V. Minkovich (2011), Y.A. Semenova (2014) and laboratory assistant E.I. Rymont (2011). From 2014, due to the death of Professor A.F. Rylyuk, the course was headed by P.V.Minskovich, Candidate of Medical Sciences.
For the years 2006-2014, the following structural and administrative changes took place at the department. Since 2006, by Order of the Rector, the name of the department has been determined - Department of Surgery. In February 2010, in connection with the liquidation of the Department of Pathological and Topographic Anatomy, two courses became part of the department of surgery - pathological (head - associate professor Rogov Yu.I.) and topographic (head - doctor of medical sciences, professor Rylyuk A.F.) anatomy. In April 2010, on the clinical base of the Department of Surgery in Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital, by the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus, there had been established the Republican Center for Reconstructive Surgical Gastroenterology, Coloproctology and Laser Surgery (with the person in charge, head of the department - Professor Vorobei A.V.), which, in 2014, was renamed into the Republican Center for Reconstructive Surgical Gastroenterology and Coloproctology.
Improvement of pathologists until 1996 was carried out in educational institutions of other republics, mainly in Russia. In 1996, for the first time, in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus dated February 27, 1996, No. 37, there had been opened a pathological anatomy course at Belarusian State Institute for Advanced Medical Training at the Department of Emergency Surgery.
The first cycles of improvement for pathologists began to be carried out in 1997 by Associate Professor Y.I. Rogov. and had a duration of two months. During the year, about 30 trainees undergo training in three cycles. Due to the lack of archives of histological glass preparations, the curriculum included selected issues of pathological anatomy that could be provided with current clinical and morphological material. At the same time, screening and accumulation of preparations of biopsy, surgical and autopsy pathology were carried out on various topics. Leading specialists of the Republic of Belarus were periodically involved in the educational process on an hourly basis. In 2002, the duration of the cycles was reduced, and their number increased to 8. Accordingly, the annual number of pathologists undergoing advanced training courses increased. In 2003, the course became part of the Department of Emergency Surgery (Department of Emergency Surgery and Pathological Anatomy), and from 2004 to 2006, it was part of the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (course of pathomorphological diagnostics). In 2005, Krylov A.Y. was employed as an assistant at the department.
With the accumulation of histological material, it became possible to conduct thematic advanced training courses.
On March 9, 2006, there had been founded Department of Pathological Anatomy of BelMAPE. Head of the department was Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor Y.I. Rogov. Since the time of the creation of the department, the staff of the department was represented by 2 lecturers in the specialty "Pathological Anatomy" (head of the department, Associate Professor Rogov Y.I. and assistant Krylov A.Y.) and 2 lecturers in the discipline "Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery" (Professor Rylyuk A. F. and Associate Professor Kholodny A.K.), since the course of topographic anatomy was included in the Department of Pathological Anatomy. From October 2006 to November 2009, Pozdnyak A.V. also worked as an assistant pathologist at the department. Practical sessions in pathological anatomy were held in the pathoanatomical building on the territory of the Children's Infectious Diseases Hospital, since 2009 - in the City Clinical Pathoanatomical Bureau of Minsk.
At the beginning of 2010, the department was again reorganized into a pathological anatomy course as part of the Department of Surgery, territorially remaining at the city bureau. In 2014-2016, the course was carried out at the Minsk Consulting and Diagnostic Center.
Currently, the course highlights the latest achievements in the scientific discipline "Pathological Anatomy". For the 20-year period of the course's existence, Associate Professor Rogov Yu.I. independently and in co-authorship with the staff, have developed all curricula and programs for advanced training and retraining of doctors of the republic in the specialty "Pathological Anatomy", presentations of lectures, lectures and practical classes, all collections of histological preparations on various topics of human pathology.
The clinical base of the course is the City Clinical Pathoanatomical Bureau of Minsk. The staff of the course carries out their clinical diagnostic work not only on this basis, where they carry out consultations and studies of biopsy, surgical and autopsy material, but also hold clinical and anatomical conferences in various medical institutions, consultations of complex cases from all pathoanatomical bureaus and departments of the republic, urgent and scheduled trips to the cities and regions of the republic as part of the commissions of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus.
Since the beginning of 2013, Kuzmenko-Moskvina Y.A. has been working at the course as an assistant, and since 2016, as a senior lecturer, who participates in the development of curricula and programs, conducts lectures and practical classes, and provides advisory assistance.
From 2004 to 2011, Associate Professor Rogov Y.I. was at the same time Chief Pathologist of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. He took an active part in organizing and holding the 1st (2006) and 2nd (2011) Republican Congresses of Pathologists of the Republic of Belarus. He was the main developer of the "Program for the restoration and reconstruction of pathological departments, pathoanatomical buildings, morgues and ritual premises in the Republic of Belarus" for 2008-2010, which made it possible to equip this service with modern devices.
Scientific directions of the department
- Angioembolization of false aneurysms in the celiac trunk basin;
- Peculiarities of blood flow after embolization of the splenic artery;
- Perforated pyloroduodenal ulcer;
- Elective and emergency endosurgery: for thoracic, hepatobiliary and colorectal pathology;
- Neck phlegmon, mediastinitis;
- Surgery of the esophagus: esophagoplasty, diverticula, strictures, herniated pods, esophageal perforations;
- Pyloroduodenal stenosis;
- Reconstructive surgery for injuries and strictures of the bile ducts;
- Surgical endocrinology;
- Surgery of carotid arteries and aortic aneurysms;
- Double balloon enteroscopy;
- Diabetic foot;
- Hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery;
- Laser surgery (hemostasis; vaporization of polyps, strictures, cholecystectomy, spleen surgery, phlebology, choledochoduodenostomy, lithotripsy, pancreatic resection);
- Impact of low-dose exposure on prenatal development;
- Thrombotic disease;
- Tumors of the skin, central nervous system, stomach;
- Consultation of the morphological part of various clinical scientific papers;
- Colorectal cancer;
- Benign colorectal pathology.
Surgeons from Arab, African countries, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Armenia undergo training at clinical residency and do internships at the department.
Scientific cooperation is being carried out with the surgical clinics of Warsaw, Heidelberg, Dresden, Uzhgorod and other universities.